Tiger Woods reportedly has a bench press 1RM of somewhere around 300 lbs. (up to 350 lbs. by some estimates) and evidently Rory McIlroy is a known gym rat. Regardless of these reports, the facts are in regarding the the efficacy of strength training in pursuit of a better golf game–strength training works.
Like most groups of athletes, golfers do however need to realize that their sport doesn’t require ‘sport-specific’ training in the weight room as much as it requires ‘individual specific’ training. This fact should be painfully obvious when you realize that both Tiger Woods and John Daly occupy nearly the same space. In all, golfers should aim for more dynamic thoracic spine arthrokinematics, enhanced power development at the hip, and increased power transfer through the trunk. These performance goals may seem self-evident, but are common amongst most athletic domains, not just golf.
Because of these commonalities with any other sporting domain, what we’re looking to do is enhance the overall athletic capacities of our golfer, while allowing sport-specific training to be done on the driving range, putting green, etc… The biggest differences in training won’t come from the fact that an individual is looking to pursue one sport, but from their individual training history, injury history, and assessment outcomes (including limb length, muscle imbalances, and spinal abnormalities).
Below are some segments from a Day 1 of a program I’ve designed for a collegiate golfer. Ultimately this is a great example of what we’re trying to do to maximize overall athleticism while working specifically on developing power, power transfer, and thoracic spine mobility. Even without having placed this athlete in front of a high-speed camera, I can guarantee we’ve improved the maximal output of this athlete’s drive in the short time he’s been working with us.
1. Overhead Pressing Facilitates A Better Golf Swing
This is a perfect example of something we pride ourselves on at Ruthless Performance, which is incorporating something that seems as though its has no bearing on the sport-specific demands of a particular sport/athlete, but is actually extraordinarily utilitarian.
In the case of our Day 1 with this athlete, our ‘A1’ is a Half-Kneeling Fat Gripz Dumbbell Overhead Press. This is a long name, but is only so because we have this athlete on a very specific overhead press. The active Half-Kneeling position is useful for inhibiting the rectus femoris. This facilitates more glute activation in later sets, separates the hips, and minimizes any kind of momentum.
In the case of a golfer one of our goals is indeed power transfer, but in the case of this, we’re trying to minimize momentum from the lower body as a means of fostering recruitment of the musculature of the upper back. By strengthening the upper back, we’re also enhancing the ability of the scapulae to move with more precision and force around the thoracic spine–this is step 1 of ensuring a better golf swing, from a kinesiological perspective.
2. Heavy Carries Promote Rotator Cuff Stability
Loaded carries should be a mainstay of most strength & conditioning programs. In this case we’ve chosen the classic farmer’s carry for a few reasons. Chiefly because of the athlete’s limited overhead range of motion.
Overhead ROM can be limited for a handful of reasons, in many cases it can be chronically tight lats and pecs. Here, however, the cause seems to stem from limitation to the thoracic spine. Since we already have the athlete completing an overhead exercise in his ‘A’ sets, I did not think it was wise to double down with overhead work on his primary AND secondary sets.
I chose to add the overhead work as his ‘A1’ because getting in this position more comfortably is one of our top priorities. The ‘B1’ actually helps us in this regard by causing some very serious cuff activation that we’ll utilize later in the workout. Even though the farmers carry can internally rotate the shoulders, we can mitigate this with cueing and frequent correction.
As it relates to golf, we’re focusing on the cuff because of its interplay with the spine. A weak rotator cuff is a potential site for energy loss in the swing and needs to be addressed accordingly.
3. Conditioning Can Reinforce Main Program Objectives
If there’s anywhere we come dangerously close to what would be traditionally viewed as ‘sport-specific’, it’s here. These two exercises were combined as a finisher for the general purpose of cardiorespiratory endurance (this is strength and conditioning, after all…). But these two exercises are pretty well suited for building a better golfer as the rotary component of the Rotational Overhead Med Ball Slam helps facilitate power transfer outside of the sagittal plane while the Low Handle Prowler Push yields glute development.
I’ll be using exercise pairing with more frequency moving forward. The Rotational Overhead Med Ball Slams provide movement at the shoulder with a semi-rigid trunk and unloaded hip hinge action. The prowler keeps those arms stationary while loading the legs in a range of motion where they are otherwise understimulated.
Many rightfully view balance in terms of anterior-posterior, but rarely do people realize that balance of stimulation within a joint’s potential range of motion is an important form of balance as well. The deep hip musculature in particular is rarely stimulated sufficiently at these end ranges. Part of the reason why the low-handle is so strenuous is why it is so effective; the low-handle more fully stimulates the hips. And in a sport like golf, maximizing action at the hips is of utmost importance.
Training for golf has some unusual demands as many of its participants are white-collar desk jockeys. This fact, mixed with the vast requirements of the spine, shoulders, and hips call for tremendous amounts of work in the gym that most of these athletes are not getting. Time in the gym for golfers should rely on enhancing thoracic spine mobility in the transverse plane, enhancing glute recruitment, and strengthening the shoulders.
Golfing more is obviously the best way to get better at golfing, but even practice has its limitations; once you’ve honed in on your swing, the only other means of getting better is adding more force.
In order to more efficiently communicate with the RPRA Sponsors, donors, and supporters, I will be putting out a weekly update with new information, FAQs, and more about the ride.
Have any questions about the ride? Reach out on our Contact Page.
1. Bike I’ll Be Riding
I can always tell who has experience in cycling based off of this… I’ve noticed cyclists tend to be gearheads about their bikes–and for good reason. I’ll be riding a modified Surly Long Haul Trucker. The Long Haul Trucker is considered to be the ‘Gold Standard of Touring Bikes’ making this an ideal candidate to support me and my gear for 43 days on the road.
2. Upcoming Fundraising Opportunities
One of our business affiliates, CrossFit Hereafter, has agreed to let us host a class to support the RPRA. On Sunday mornings at 10:00 AM, we’ll be running a ‘Sunday Morning Mobility and Weekend Recovery’ workout series.
Any of our athletes who have experienced our corrective protocols will have at least a slight understanding of the nature of the class. The description for the class is as follows:
The class will consist of a series of mobility exercises, activation drills, core exercises, and correctives in general. Although this will mostly be bodyweight exercises and stretches, it will be formatted in a way to elevate your heart rate and provide a full-body workout.
If you’re unsure if you’ll like it, don’t worry, the class is free to attend. There is a suggested $20 donation to support the 4,000 mile ride and the charities that the ride benefits.
Although this workout series will be on-going throughout the summer, it will not be every single sunday. The schedule for the Sunday Morning Mobility and Weekend Recovery class is listed below.
Sundays at 10:00 AM on the Following Dates:
3. Logistical Updates
The RPRA route is largely predicated upon the existing Adventure Cycle Route Network as the backbone for the ride. From the start, I’ll be riding along the Western Express Bike Route which will encompass the first 18 days of my trip. From the end of the Western Express in Pueblo, CO, I’ll pick up the TransAmerica Bicycle Trail.
The TransAmerica will be my home for the following few weeks until I diverge from the route to head north on Skyline Drive in Shenandoah National Park.
Beyond Skyline Drive, there are just a handful of bike routes which will take me to my ultimate destination in Pottsville, PA.
In all, I’ll be averaging about 90 miles / day for the duration of the trip. The entirety of the trip will take 43 days to get from the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco to Garfield Square in Pottsville, PA.
4. Foster with Back in Black Dog Rescue
Love dogs but not ready to commit to raising and caring for a dog long-term? Back in Black Dog Rescue’s distributed network of foster volunteers is always in need.
As a foster you’ll care for a pup until its ready to move-in or be adopted to its furever home.
Contact Chivon Murray at firstname.lastname@example.org for more information.
5. Sponsors Wanted!
To help us reach our fundraising goals, we’re actively seeking business partners to sponsor the ride, helping us defray some of the costs, pay for promotional materials, and more.
John Matulevich, owner of Ruthless Performance will be bicycling cross-country for Hillside SPCA and Back in Black Dog Rescue with the goal of raising $10,000 and awareness for Hillside SPCA and Back in Black Dog Rescue.
The unsupported, 3,900-mile cycle will begin at the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco, CA on Saturday, August 24th and end at the Garfield Square in Pottsville, PA on Saturday, October 5th.
Over the course of this ride, John will be averaging almost 100 miles per day over a variety of terrain and topography. The route includes various difficulties like traversing “The Loneliest Road in America” (U.S. Highway 50), crossing Moab desert, climbing to elevations of more than 11,500 feet in the Rocky Mountains, and strong headwinds in the great plains.
The route will follow a combination of several well-known bike routes; initially the ride will follow the Western Express Bicycle Trail to Pueblo, CO where the trail meets with the TransAmerica Bicycle Trail. The route will diverge from the TransAmerica trail in Virginia on the Blue Ridge Parkway. From there, the route will take the 120 mile Skyline Drive in Shenandoah National Park to Front Royal Virginia. From Front Royal, the last 200 miles of the route will be comprised of a series of state routes and farm roads until reaching the final destination point in Pottsville, PA.
Over the final 3 days, local cyclists will begin to accompany John for the final segments of the ride. On the last day of the ride, the cyclist will be accompanied by a motorcycle and firetruck escort from Pine Grove, PA into Pottsville. Immediately after the riders cross the finish line in Garfield Square, a reception with food, drinks, and a chinese auction will be held.
For more details on the events occuring on the day of the ride-in, be sure to follow along on the event’s Facebook page.
Both beneficiaries, Hillside SPCA and Back in Black Dog Rescue are 501(c)(3) non-profits. To learn more about their work, visit and follow their Facebook pages: Hillside SPCA and Back in Black Dog Rescue.
The event is being outfitted by Dn’A Bikes in Tamaqua. For corporate sponsorship, fundraising events, or more info, send inquiries to info@RuthlessPerformance.com.
You can also follow along with updates and more on the event’s Facebook Page.
Donate to the event directly on the Ruthless Performance Ride America GoFundMe page.
Biomechanics 101: Understanding Lever Classifications
If biomechanics were understood as comprehensively as is used by lackluster sports and health professionals trying to demonstrate their competence and knowledge, the world would be floating atop some Matrix / Vitruvian Man mash-up. To implement any of the core tenants of biomechanics at even a modest level, where its implications actually have some semblance of an influence on performance programming design, one must first understand the most rudimentary elements of mechanics.
Some of this may be intuitive, some may not, but regardless, understanding lever classifications will bring the machinery underpinning the human body to the forefront of consciousness next time you are exercising or designing a training program.
This concept is going to get another step simpler as we begin to look at the four primary elements of any lever system. The four elements are: load, fulcrum, effort, and lever arm. As it relates to human kinetics, load can be thought of as some segment of the body that you are trying to move, a weighted barbell, or an object like a baseball or soccer ball. The fulcrum is the point at which any pivot or movement occurs as the effort is applied to move the load. The lever arm is the object on which all of these forces are acting. The traditional example of this is a seesaw like you would find in a playground. The center of the seesaw is the fulcrum, while the load and the effort continue to alternate as the opposing individual hoists themself against the resistance of their opposing counterpart; this however, is just one example of the organization of these elements. As you’ll soon see, where the fulcrum, load, and effort lie in relationship to one another is how we classify levers.
In Class 1 Levers, the fulcrum sits in between the two opposing forces of the load and effort. Although this classification doesn’t occur with much frequency in the human body, it is one of the easiest to understand. Consider the above seesaw, this is a Class 1 Lever in its purest form. One of the few examples of this in the body is the atlanto-occipital joint. Nodding the head forwards and backwards displays this as the force input and outputs reverse as you nod forwards vs backwards (over the fulcrum of the aforementioned AO joint.
Let’s make this matter more confusing before you get too comfortable with this idea… Superficially it may seem as though lever classifications in the body are black-and-white, much grey* does indeed exist. Consider this example of an overhead triceps extension: when pictured this seems like a clear case of Class 1. We have the triceps inputting force proximal to the elbow, with the elbow clearly acting as a fulcrum, while distally, we have the output force or load (cable or dumbbell) being acted upon. Upon closer examination, the precise insertion point of the triceps insertion on the Olecranon process (the elbow) seems to indicate that this may not be such a clear delineation as the input force is also the fulcrum.
But this is a 101 level intro so let’s not get carried away in graduate-level theory…
Lever classification isn’t all that interesting, but I think Class 2 is as interesting as it gets. In Class 2, the input and output forces are next to each other, while the fulcrum exists at the end of the system furthest away from the effort. The simplistic go-to example here is a standard calf raise; though simple the implications of this are tremendous…
Since the load and effort are next to each other, the mechanical advantage amplifies output capacity. This brings to light yet another term to define. Mechanical advantage—yet another word synonymous with “I’m smart and know what I’m talking about” in gym speak. Mechanical advantage is used to express the difference between the force input and what its potential output can be based on the totality of the variables within the system.
Mechanical advantage is what provides an athlete with long arms his ability to pitch on the field or take long, powerful strokes in the pool, while limiting his ability to bench press or do most traditional weighted exercises (deadlift not withstanding).
Another example of this is a very common exercise amongst our programs, the landmine overhead press. Consider the load (weight on the bar) as it sits between the working hand (effort) and the fulcrum (the landmine attachment itself).
This is also what has provided the mammalian ankle structure with its clear benefits on an evolutionary timeline. Class 2 provides significant output with minimal force input, allowing for energy conservation yet consistent output over extended distances in the form of locomotion.
Just like in Class 2, the fulcrum exists at the end of the system, but now the input and outputs are reversed. Now, the load sits next to the effort, but opposite the fulcrum. This provides the tremendous force inputs necessary for things like mastication (chewing) or slamming the sledgehammer against a tire.
The inefficiency of this system is both a feature and a flaw. In the case of the sledgehammer, it can do serious damage during demolition projects, but at the expense of a great deal of energy. This is why sledgehammer work is so taxing during workouts.
Class 3 is partially responsible for the large range of biceps curl strength (even in untrained individuals). As a result of genetic variation, the insertion of the biceps can be millimeters closer or further from the elbow. As this force input migrates closer to the load from one individual to the next, less force is required to lift the same output. Consider trying to do a chest-supported row with your hands almost touching the base of the machine vs. out closer to the weight.
As you begin to understand this more fully, it will help you interface more successfully with challenges and conventional wisdom in your sport or domain. Next time you’re in the gym, consider the exercise you’re doing and how it relates to these lever classifications.
*Grey can be spelled as such or g-r-a-y. This spelling seems suspicious to me and anyone who uses this should be under constant state-sponsored supervision.
Visiting my alma mater for workshops and lectures is something I look forward to. I enjoy seeing the growth of the institution, the new faces, etc. This was even more so the case this past week when I presented on the concepts of mobility and stability to the Bloomsburg University Strength & Fitness Club. As a former president of the club, it was rewarding to see that the club has continued to find success and a segment of the student body interested in such high-level concepts in kinesiology and human performance.
The workshop began with a very typical introduction to the joint-by-joint approach. Since most anyone who’s listened to me talk at-length have heard about this, I’ll save this concept for its own post some other time. Because this wasn’t classroom based, we quickly moved into a handful of actionable drills and techniques that these students could swiftly employ into their own workout programming.
As long as an hour can seem, it flies by when you’re trying to demonstrate, correct, and generally facilitate these cutting-edge and nuanced exercises in a group setting; but, there were definitely some stand-out moments and takeaways worth talking about further here.
College-Students are Predisposed to Flexion-Based Abnormalities
Long hours locked into flexion in the classroom, library, or lab are requisite for scholarly success; recreating in these positions is not. Rather than spend time outside of the classroom sitting even more in front of the TV, strength training or club sports can offer an opportunity to enhance spinal mechanics as well as overall cognition and more.
To take this a step further, students can spend their time more efficiently during a warm-up for a workout by focusing on the specific areas of the spine and musculature that are most prone to poor mechanics and resting tone. A keen observer to the workshop may notice we didn’t spend much time going over drills that accentuate flexion; this is largely by design.
One all-too-common observation is the over emphasis of the pecs and lats in most strength training programs. With a population prone to long bouts of sitting (flexion), the internal rotation caused by lat and pec dominance can exacerbate some associated musculoskeletal injuries. Reducing volume on the lats and pecs, while increasing the volume of work done by the traps can enhance performance and simultaneously mitigate spinal issues.
Though the real point we covered in-depth regarding all of this was about thoracic spine mobilization. The more the thoracic spine can move unrestricted through the sagittal and transverse planes, the more likely the surrounding musculature can more efficiently function.
Ensuring Soft-Tissue Quality Requires Time Not Equipment
The restrictions on soft-tissue work are usually self-imposed. Going into this event, I was under the impression that our venue would be an empty basketball court, but because of how accessible these drills and exercises are, this wouldn’t have been a problem at all.
Most of the mobility drills and stretches that we demonstrated required little to no equipment and can be manipulated with bodyweight alone to yield an effective response and positive adaptation. For the ankle, drills like the ankle-wall drill, myofascial release with a lacrosse ball, or dorsiflexed ankle drill require next to nothing to complete. Further up the kinetic chain, we can use the couch stretch, bretzel, or saddle stretch for the quads. The hips can be mobilized with the cossack squat, half-kneeling drill, or the posterior hip stretch. And on up the chain…
Though that is nowhere near a definitive list, the larger point is that equipment should not be a constraint; the primary reason that people have insufficient movement quality is due to a lack of time invested on a regular basis to ensure continued improvements to flexibility and posture.
Where was the Foam Rolling?
I have nothing against foam rolling—in fact, I advocate for foam rolling and actively add some variations to the majority of our corrective exercise protocols. When foam rolling is added, it is usually in short bursts. 15-20 seconds per side on areas that aren’t an issue or an approaching problem. This time expands only slightly for areas that are problems, from 30 up to 60 seconds on problem areas. I can’t give a detailed account of what areas may be problems due to the individualized nature of these protocols, but the calves, pecs, and traps tend to be a focal point.
When we do advocate for foam rolling, we do so in these short bouts because we’ve found greater adherence when the demands are so limited.
Foam rolling didn’t make the cut for the mobility workshop because there are greater uses of time, particularly when we’re trying to get a new population to engage in movement and tissue quality initiatives. Foam rolling may provide some relief and facilitate some long-term improvements in these areas but mobility drills are a more proactive approach than SMR/ foam rolling as foam rolling mainly addresses issues once they’ve already become an issue.
Nutrition Workshop Coming Soon
I’ll be presenting at Bloomsburg University once again in just under two weeks. The topic will be cutting-edge and nontraditional dietary modalities for high performance. The event is open to all BU students and is hosted by the BU Strength & Fitness Club. For more information and event details, contact the BU Strength & Fitness Club directly at BUStrengthAndFitness@gmail.com.
Internal Program Review: Strength Programming For a CrossFit Athlete with Patellar Tendonitis – Day 1
Since our Internal Program Review Series has been getting consistently positive feedback, I’m going to continue today with a look at a Day 1 from one of our comprehensive programming athletes. This particular client is a CrossFit enthusiast and upland hunter who has been regularly supplementing his training with Ruthless Performance programs for some time.
Though this is more of a general look at the Day 1 of his strength programming, we’ll be addressing some modifications we’ve made along the way with regards to the patellar tendonitis.
From the perspective of the training lay-out, we’ve cut back his strength programming to 3 days (which has been as high as 4-5 days in the past). We’ve also supplemented with some training that’s been inspired by our in-house Posture Restoration & Injury Prevention Training protocols. The athlete can choose to perform those and forego his traditional strength programming in the case of a day in which there’s a high prevalence of knee pain.
Those supplemental workouts consist largely of stretches, mobility drills, and activation drills of varying intensities designed to enhance kinesthetic awareness and proprioception while minimizing the impact and input required of the affected joints.
Furthermore, the Day 2 workout consists of a lower body dominant day, with exercise designed to keep knee strain to a minimum, while encouraging blood flow for a more expedient recovery. Day 3 is a full body day designed around the primary goals of maintaining size and enhancing strength even under the reduced workload of this phase. The athlete is still undergoing 3-4 CrossFit workouts / week with various exercise modifications designed with his knees in mind; namely substitutions for the olympic lifts, plyometrics, and burpees.
But now onto the subject of today’s Internal Program Review, Day 1…
1. Stimulation through Antagonistic Training
We’ve all seen programs before with two antagonist exercises paired together (i.e. push & pull, bi’s & tri’s, etc…), this is a time-tested way to get more work into a shorter period of time, while building some muscle. To take this a step further, we’ve manipulated the rep range of the Floor Press in such a manner that we’ll see a quick adaptation and supercompensation to the exercise. This will make for enhancements in strength while still stimulating growth.
What we’ve also done here with the A2 is add a contralateral stance. So not only is our athlete getting some good lat work in, but he’s also stabilizing and strengthening the musculature of the foot on the support side.
As opposed to a regular unilateral band row, a contra-lateral band row implies that the athlete is standing with his weight resting on the non-working side. This further enhances trunk activation, glute development, and more. Adding a contralateral position to various exercises where feasible (much like adding the half-kneeling position for hip mobility) can serve to achieve these secondary goals.
2. Make Glutes not Low Back Pain
The Tall Kneeling position is something we don’t use all that much at Ruthless Performance. In fact, Tall Kneeling Overhead Press is one of the select few exercises we advocate in this position. The tall kneeling, when added to the overhead press helps engage the glutes, as the skeletal system can’t so passively stabilize as it may otherwise be able to do from standing.
As far as the reps are concerned on the Tall Kneeling Overhead Press, we are keeping the volume rather high. The reps here are the primary variable that we are manipulating. This does a few things that we find rather advantageous to performance and longevity: the extended time under tension further enhances gluteal stimulation, contributes a greater degree to resting posture (as the shoulders and traps tend to respond better to higher reps), and also takes some strain off of the shoulder when compared to higher loads and lower reps.
Load on this may remain consistent for the entirety of a 4-week cycle. This will more than likely be the case here as this comes with a particularly steep influx of repetitions throughout the cycle (going from 2×10 to 4×20 in a matter of 4 weeks)…
Since we are so concerned with the athletes on-going knee issues, we’ve directed most of our lower body strength work to be hinge-dominant. With this in mind, we’ve gone out of our way here to design this ‘B’ set to lessen the requirements of the low-back. Though the B1 (Tall Kneeling Overhead Press) will require some low-back involvement, we’ve moved the B2 into a split stance position; this is a rather universal modification to help lessen the requirements of the low back in most exercises.
The Face Pulls are a constant in most of our training programs. The high volume of work on these is nothing special, as we’re constantly trying to stimulate that mid-back and undo some of the damages of daily sitting during commutes, work, and even downtime.
3. A 3×8 Protocol is Rarely Ideal on Supplemental and Single-Joint Exercises
Corrective exercise is frequently thought of as unfamiliar and even bizarre body contortions meant to pull and stretch soft tissue from the bone… Very frequently, particularly in the CrossFit world, some very common exercises can be highly corrective. Humeral abduction in the frontal plane can stimulate the rotator cuff in some ways that are rarely replicated in a traditional CrossFit WOD.
With this DB Lateral Raise as a stand-alone exercise, we’re targeting the deltoids for hypertrophy in a manner that happens to be conducive to not only rotator cuff function, but posture as well. This makes for a very efficient exercise choice when we’re trying to help an individual move better while adding some strength and size.
We’ve told the athlete to start with a weight in which he could complete the totality of the reps in approximately 3 sets. The goal here is to progressively do more reps in the same amount of sets as the weeks go on. Ideally this is with the weight remaining consistent from week 1. As many coaches that advocate these high rep ranges for shoulder exercises will point out, athletes that most commonly have large shoulders are those who train the shoulder with a very high frequency and to fatigue like in swimming or gymnastics.
CrossFit is a Sport, Treat it as Such
Many coaches and athletes from the strength sports are quick to assume that since strength is implicit in their sport that they do not need outside strength and conditioning (in this case more specifically outside technique correction and individualized programming). CrossFit participants looking to attain a high level must realize that the highest levels of performance in CrossFit come from highly individualized programming, with CrossFit WODs being a sport-specific skill rather than a fitness challenge (take Fran for example, this should be viewed as an event, not a series of exercises). By customizing training to the needs of the athlete and matching that with the demands of CrossFit as a sport, we can enhance athletic performance far beyond what we can expect with the existing standalone CrossFit model.
Given that Ruthless Performance is based out of a land-locked state, the paddleboarding or surfing communities are not populations which we traditionally cater to, but given my own predisposition to the sport (surf when I’m on the west coast, paddleboard on the east…), I’ve spent some time thinking about the demands of paddleboarding, as well as what it takes for me to make sure that I’m most prepped for when the opportunity to take a road trip with the board arises.
Paddleboarding itself is a workout and can be easily classed as its own sport, so with this in mind, most of the strength & conditioning exercises and techniques I’ll employ to maximize performance on the board are done to stimulate some of the neglected or underused movement patterns, muscles, and skills while alleviating some of the overuse that can develop over long days on the board.
Consider the following points to help develop your skills on the board no matter how far away you are from your favorite spot…
1. Glute Development Still Reigns Supreme
The glutes are the powerhouse of the body and are pretty heavily correlated to peak athletic function (regardless of domain). Even in the case of paddleboarding, where you are more stationary and have less force input/output demands than some other sports, you still need the glutes for a handful of reasons.
Glutes work in synchrony with the lats (most notably through the lumbodorsal fascia) to assist in each stroke of the paddle. Weak glutes in paddleboarding can also cause severe long-term back pain. Because the standing position on a paddleboard relies on a hinged hip, the inability to maintain tension over time throughout the glutes causes unnecessary tightness in the low back.
Consider including box squats, 180 hip extensions, side-lying clams, lateral band walks, deadlifts, and glute bridges/ thrusts to maximize development of all three glute muscles (max, min, med).
2. Don’t Fall Into Sport-Specific Traps
It’s easy to see how an athlete would want to utilize his/her time in the gym replicating paddle after paddle, pop-up after pop-up, but this is not an efficient use of time. Keep the paddleboarding-specificity in the water. When strength training for the sport, you should want to engage in what we call ‘anti-specific training’, which mostly just means engaging in exercises, drills, and positions that bring about a more neutral posture while maximizing power and force development that you couldn’t otherwise get while on the board.
Many paddleboarders will align themselves with the ski erg for their energy system training because it most closely replicates their sport. I’m highly averse to the ski erg to begin with, then putting a population whose entire sport exists in a state of flexion onto this machine is a recipe for overuse injuries in the shoulder (and elbow for that matter), slipped discs in the lumbar spine, and hindered transverse plane arthrokinematics.
3. The Value of Unilateral Work Can Not Be Overstated
There aren’t very many sports or events that exist on such an unstable surface, so maximizing strength and stability at contact points is paramount. Then, take a guy who boarders on flatfooted like me and put him on a paddleboard for a few hours and his/her ankles will be smoked. Strengthening the feet with various unilateral drills will help extend a paddleboarders’ time on the board each day.
Most exercises that can be done on two feet can be done on one. In fact, performing some of the aforementioned glute exercises on a single-leg is a great way to maximize time in the gym. Some of my favorite unilateral exercises are Unilateral Cable Deadlifts (can be done with barbell, dumbbells, kettlebells…), contralateral push press, contralateral low cable row, pistol squat, Chaos Rear-Foot Elevated Split Squat.
This shouldn’t be misconstrued as instability work on a BOSU ball. The goal of the exercise isn’t to make balancing harder, but rather to make balancing easier over time. This can not be achieved on something like a BOSU ball / instability trainer.
Overall this has barely scratched the surface of strength training for paddleboarders. These are just some quick thoughts I’ve had on this topic, mostly as it has related to my own development as a paddleboarder, but from the perspective of a scientific and methodological practice and training environment.
Are you a paddleboarder interested in starting a workout program to maximize your skills on a board? Reach out to me at John@RuthlessPerformance.com to get started today.
**Editor’s Note: Today’s Ruthless Performer Q&A Series is one of the most expansive in the Q&A series to-date. Like many health professionals, Kyle’s own history in sports and wellness lends credibility to many of his thoughts on health and maximizing the health of athletes and the general population. If you like what Kyle has to say, check out his Youtube page (links provided throughout the text). Enjoy!**
1. Hey Kyle, glad to have you on the site… We worked together in college, but you’ve since came back onto my radar with a video you recently put out that was pretty critical of the modern health care system. What was the chain of events that made you view our healthcare system so unfavorably? What was the straw that broke the camel’s back and lead to you to make that youtube video?
The chain began with myself at a young age while in middle school my body began showing warning signs of early degradation of my joints that carried on into high school as well. Don’t get me wrong I played hard. I never really had a good internal gauge of when to slow down and just play for fun. I was the guy going 1,000 miles per hour at all times. It didn’t matter if it was dodgeball or riding a goat it was all at my best effort. But the immobilization and rest prescription never made sense to me. Before the age of 14 I had 2 ankle casts, 2 full leg casts and a corset back brace applied for a stress fracture in L4 and L5. After all these immobilization techniques and very little rehab you can imagine the insuffiencines that were creeping up in my musculoskeletal and nervous system alike. I felt confused and not well understood during these conservative treatment techniques and believed more could be done. Why not add in an abundance of z packs for sinus infections with the side effect of increased chances of achilles tendon ruptures to the mix. So I continued on my merry way through high school with an unbalanced motor and a broken down immune system. My skin began showing signs of immune system malfunction with acne and a condition called vitiligo that failed conservative medical doctor directed treatments for 8 years. Between dermatologist and orthopedic appointments I had about all but given up on this whole idea of health.
Around this point I had started spending time with a local chiropractor Dr. Lee Lausch that had treated me with a non – traditional modality called the ARP electrical stimulation unit. This really blew me away as it got me back significantly faster than any other treatment I had tried in the past (rest and ice). So I began asking more questions and that’s when the flood gates opened. He began providing me with information on nutrition and really from there I began viewing the world through this lens of the body can heal itself. Just at the point where Dr. Lausch and I really began connecting my father had gotten into a traumatic accident. During football camp my senior season a truck had fallen on him and he broke 36 bones in his body. He survived, in which I am so thankful for all the modern medical system has to offer in regards to trauma care. Once they patched him back up is when the wheels started to fall off. He had his entire right femur replaced with a metal rod. His left ankle was in pieces and needed to be put back together. So they essentially did a full ankle replacement. This didn’t last long. He was out hiking one day looking for turkeys as he is an avid archery hunter. The ankle replacement had failed quickly and we later found out the bone was necrotic. The surgeon mistakenly anchored the metal into bone that had little integrity. There was no other option at this point but to amputate his leg from the mid calf down.
Yet no fault taken for this complete lack of patient care or pure ignorance to the integrity of the bone. Now this poor guy is 10 plus surgeries in and can’t seem to find his way out. His phantom pain is real now from the amputation, he can’t sleep and he feels constant jolts of electricity going down to his foot. This seems to be common after an amputation and this field needs more research focused here as it massively affects our veterans.
At this point hes taking a cocktail of medications mainly to control his pain, with the rest of the meds to manage the side effects. We’re 2 to 3 years in and his liver is struggling to keep up. The only thing this medication did was temporarily decrease pain and rip apart his body from the inside out. He was getting more unhealthy, losing more of himself and ultimately slowly dying. I came home from college one day and things began to click. One of the last doctor appointments I went to with him they recommended a battery powered device to place into his sacral plexus. This was intended to shut off the pain signals to his lower extremity. We both just stared in disbelief. Lets just say we walked out confused without answers. My dad was at his last resort and that was getting off the meds, begin exercising, fixing his nutrition and using alternative modalities and physicians to get back on track. The results were astounding. Within 6 months he had completely got off his medication, lost give or take 50 pounds and actually started to live his life again. Solely from the pure will of his heart. Not guided by a physician.
Here’s the loophole that he discovered that most people will never tell you. And quite frankly what they don’t want you to know. His medical doctor didn’t want him off medication. The only thing his nurses ever called him for were to check and ensure he was taking his meds. If he didnt fill his script in time you better believe they were calling in minutes to question why that didn’t happen. Workers compensation won’t pay for much of any alternative therapy beyond what big pharma doesn’t control. But here’s what they will cover. And this is exactly what my dad did to get his life back. A massage from a licensed massage therapist, a gym membership, physical therapy and chiropractic care. You mix in some quality supplementation and a whole foods diet and voila you have your recipe for success.
The problem was who was going to tell us this? First, the person has to be open to it and that is definitely step number one. But our medical doctor wasn’t getting a cut to tell him he gained weight and needs to lose weight. Their concern wasn’t directed on fixing. It was solely directed at managing. We had to piece this together through trial and error. You get what you get because you do what you do. If you allow the system to guide you, you can only get out of that system what they offer. You don’t know what you don’t know.
Well now I know and I’m here to express my story. This was 10 years ago the alternative health movement wasn’t as mainstream as its slowly becoming.
2. What roles have you played in the healthcare system? What do you do currently?
I have played many roles in the healthcare system. It began with personal training at the chiropractors office I mentioned previously. Here I was training highschool and Division I athletes all the way up to 70 year old mail carriers using the super slow method on MedX machines. We focused on metabolic specific training from the book Body by Science written by Doug McGuff, M.D. If you haven’t read this I highly recommend it.
From here I went to Florida International University to do my graduate work in Athletic Training. As a student I spent time in Division IA football and soccer, NFL with the Cleveland Browns, Orthopedic Urgent Care with a Upper Extremity surgeon and a Private High School. During my time here I also continued studying nutrition with a focus on holistic healing, which was the missing link that I continually found within my more than 2,000 hours of clinical experience in school. It’s the large pink elephant in the room and nobody wants to address it. Because the reality is, the majority of folks in these settings have little to no knowledge on the topic which is a system flaw not a personal issue. So really the only way you get proper nutritional training is if you take the time to do it yourself. Period. If you’re not learning you’re dying. Athletic trainers must have an overseeing physician in most states to practice. Medical Doctors volunteer for teams to get their ‘in’ for more prospects for their clinic to produce of course more money. What the orthopedic doctor says goes.
I saw the small influence the athletic trainer really had when push came to shove. Especially when speaking on the NFL and athletic trainers role in that setting. They’re puppets to the medical doctors and physical therapists. Why hire highly trained medical professionals (ATC’s) then disregard their skill set? Once this really clicked for me I decided the NFL was certainly not for me. I passed my board exam early in February before I graduated and accepted a job in march to work as an athletic trainer at a NAIA school in Maine. Everyone thought I was out of my mind for accepting this job due to the location being in northern Maine.
What most didnt know is that I as the primary caregiver for 110 college athletes with no outside influence. I was able to run the strength and conditioning programs, implement injury prevention programs for warm ups, take the athletes grocery shopping and facilitate healing through nutritional understanding and direct application. I wanted to see what I could do with a group of individuals with this approach of an all encompassing program. I was in absolute heaven. 4 of the 5 teams I worked with made it to the national tournament. Men’s basketball made it to the final four and both mens and womens soccer teams won the national championship.
Unfortunately the majority of the staff left after this year so I parted ways as well, and moved to Texas. In Texas I worked for a small group of wellness centers that was developed and run by chiropractors. Here I was the movement director and the marketing director. My roles as the movement director included community health education, orthopedic evaluations, soft tissue application and corrective exercise. Here is where my understanding of community health and what the general populations thoughts were on health really expanded. Myself and the chiropractor would go into businesses to provide the employees a green smoothie and salad for lunch. In turn we would present on health and wellness and provide a quick posture screening. My biggest take away here was that people still weren’t connecting the dots between what is at the end of their fork and their health. As well as the degenerative effects of sitting under artificial light for 8-10 hours , staring into a computer while in high stress environments.
I mean how far can we possibly get from a human’s thriving environment? The typical american spends more than half their life in captivity which is essentially the example I just gave. From a 50,000 foot view of how the typical american lives it looks as if were living in a cage. At the end of the day we’re animals. No if, ands or buts about it.
Currently I am one of the athletic trainers at an all boys private high school in Miami Florida where I care for 1,000 athletes that participate in 22 different sports with a total of 50 sports teams. Its my absolute dream job. I perform exactly as NATA states: We collaborate with physicians to provide preventative services, emergency care, clinical diagnosis, therapeutic intervention and rehabilitation of injuries and medical conditions. I am the first person to see an injury and the last person to clear them to return to play. This is key for me as I advise the direction of the athletes referral and treat mainly all in house. This is what I learned early on about athletic training, that I feel most people are unaware of. We’re holistic healers and use nutrition, modalities and exercise to treat orthopedic injuries. It’s a beautiful process. You can essentially build and run a clinic exactly how you want within the confines of your licensure in that state.
3. I know you have experience with athletic training, what are your thoughts on this profession? Where should field of athletic training be applauded for doing a good job and where are mistakes being made?
I’m a big believer that your perception is your reality. Coming into the profession I was very hesitant on staying traditional–referring to working in an academic setting or for a professional sports team. For the sole reason that’s what I was exposed to at the time and it seemed as if athletic trainers are all burned out, overworked and underpaid. As a whole is this true? I believe so yes.
The reality is in medicine if you don’t work with insurance, prescribe medication or do surgery it’s difficult to make great money. Is it possible? Absolutely, but not common. What I discovered is athletic trainers are now everywhere in healthcare and it’s expanding which is awesome. It’s so important that you find your niche. Every job is very different from the next and that is so important to consider. Like my job in Maine. All the moving pieces were there they just needed someone to glue them together. I was told not to go time and time again.
As an AT you MUST be creative, open minded and adaptive at all times. If you’re open to that it will be a blast. Its fast pace, ever changing and always exciting. It’s certainly not for everyone. But I believe I found my jam.
Athletic training has been making bounds and leaps in the last 10 years. Especially here in Miami-Dade county. All public secondary schools are required to have an athletic trainer on site. I think this has been our biggest impact. Research and the implementation of evidence-based medicine is so important. Don’t get me wrong. But big picture and where I think the focus should be is on the youth. They are vulnerable and exposed to a lot of injuries, specifically concussions. This age group is in such a critical time in human development.
To have someone there on site to assist them with acute management and recovery of injuries. I believe we will continually keep sports safe and will remain developing the youth in a really positive way that just makes society an overall better place.
The mistakes are in athletic trainers allowing past culture nuances of athletic training to continue in the growth that is now taking place. All athletic trainers are now required to have a master of science degree in athletic training to practice. When previously it was a Bachelor’s degree. Degrees aren’t everything, but the cost vs benefit has to be there. The reality is as a seasonal athletic trainer that is board certified and licensed in the NFL typically makes between $8.50 and $15.00 an hour. This is for a 7 billion dollar company. Yikes. This is supposed to be the peak of the profession, huh? Not to mention athletic trainers are still taking jobs for $30,000 a year after giving over 1,000 hours of work for free and a $100,000 master’s degree. It makes absolutely no sense. Know your worth, create your value and stand by it.
4. It’s good to see someone involved in the well-being of young athletes being active and leading by example. What are you doing to maximize your health and wellness as an individual?
This is ultimately how I found athletic training. I wanted to know how to heal from injuries and to perform at a high level at all times not just in sports. I had to learn the foundation of this process by really understanding anatomy. I learned anatomy in undergrad but it was nothing remotely close to what I learned in the athletic training degree. From there I could expand.
My daily routine focuses are: mindset, nutrition, exercise, sunlight, giving back, sleep. In that order.
I’ve really focused on developing in my career to allow these to flourish as much as possible.
This is a big reason why I love my job so much. I go outside everyday, my job requires walking, running and lifting with sitting being a choice. The key focus and most rewarding part is to give back to others and help when they are in need. What a true blessing this really is.
To develop my mindset for the day, I begin my day with gratitude and journaling. This has been the biggest game changer in my life. Setting your intention for the day, being thankful for what you have and sending out some motivational videos/quotes to loved ones that I think will help them that day. Knowing where to focus your consciousness daily can and will help you reach your goals. Instead of letting your day direct you, you direct your day.
Take my probiotic: ultimate flora fx on a empty stomach to create the optimal environment for digestion and immune function throughout my day
Chug a glass of clean water: zero water filter is what I use
Go through emails, write and listen to a collaboration of podcasts or videos for whatever I’m tackling that day.
After my probiotic breaks down for about a half hour I introduce food which typically looks like 3-6 pasture raised eggs cooked over easy in grass fed butter along side smoked salmon, grass fed cheese and organic berries – this varies.
This is on days I exercise. If I know I’m not going to lift I will fast until lunch and just supplement throughout the morning.
My daily supplements in the morning currently are:
Tangy Tangerine 2.0 and Osteo FX: multivitamin and mineral powders
- 60 minerals
- 12 amino acids
- 16 vitamins
- All plant derived from organic/non-gmo ingredients
Read more about this here.
I’m currently detoxifyng my liver so I’m also mixing in that same drink a powder called Pollen burst: superoxide dismutase (SOD)/Gliadin complex
- Created from Flower pollen
- To Increase antioxidant pathways
Read more about this here.
Also, Ultimate EFA plus.
- Fatty acids from Borage, Flax and Fish (anchovy, Sardines and Pollock)
- IFOS (international fish oil standard) certified
- This is so essential as it tests the product for oxidation, heavy metals and potency along with many other specifications
Read more about this here.
I26 hyperimmune Egg: Immunoregulatory supplement that is well documented and quite an advancement in the ability to assist in arthritis healing and digestion.
Read more about this here.
Ultimate Selenium: This prevents many types of cancer specifically two types breast and prostate
- Essential trace mineral
Read more about this here.
Zinc Fx: 48% of americans are deficient in zinc. This trace mineral isn’t talked about enough.
- It builds & supports immune system
Read more about this here.
Lift right before lunch:
What I have found for myself that works really well is quite simple. I lift weights/exercise for 30 minutes a day everyday. I believe the core foundation to a successful healthy lifestyle is rooted in quality and consistency not much of anything else. I don’t think there is a specific exercise that is going to correct anything in the body but more the collaboration of movement and consistency at which you perform that exercise. Currently because of the lifestyle I choose to live, training to become proficient in advanced lifts isnt what my focus is on. So I choose the most effective and efficient way for my body to prevent illness and thrive. Which for me and my physiology is 30 min a day of no short rest heavy lifting. I usually keep it to 3 to 4 different lifts that change frequently to attend to the SAID principle, the process of reversibility and engaging in different exercises to challenge my nervous system to generate growth in neural pathways.
What I don’t currently do enough of that I need to refocus on is just going outside and playing. The psychological aspect of creativity in exercise is so important and finding ways to move the body and challenge the nervous system with complex dynamic movements is key. Playing frisbee, golf, volleyball or climbing a tree and using the gifts we were given as humans is the best way to fulfill the human bodies requirements of advanced technological movement patterns that dampen quite fast if not used.
To categorize my diet to American fad diets you could say it’s a paleo diet mixed with keto fasting focusing on quality not quantity. I eat less and focus on high quality diversification of nutrient dense foods and supplementation. Most of my calories come from lunch. Lunch consists of a small amount of carbs such as white rice, yuca, sweet potatoes, plantains. With protein I try for two different types each meal between fish, eggs, pork, beef, and chicken. A large salad with fresh raw veggies and my dressing is ACV or balsamic vinegar. I like to include a majority of raw fruits and veggies as I’ve found this is what works best for me.
At lunch I do nutrition counseling with some athletes on what to eat for that day which keeps me accountable and learning everyday from them.
Dinner: Raw fruit and vegetable based. This has really worked for me and has been a great alteration in my diet that was a big change from how I grew up. Dinner was always the biggest meal to now dinner being my smallest meal calorie wise, because of the way my day is set up. Sleep is the last focus for the day. My greatest challenge here has been slowing down my mind enough to rest. My strategy consists of putting my phone down and turning on airplane mode, getting rid of all the white light and just leaving my salt lamp on while I reflect on my day. Once I generate my thoughts I journal and get all those thoughts on paper. This has really allowed me to fall asleep and once I’m out I’m out for the night. With a typical night being 8 hours. I don’t believe everyone needs 8 hours but it’s what works for me. Some people may need more or less.
5. Some (of many) similarities I see between us are your voracious reading habits and how up-to-date you are in the world of health. What trends do you see emerging? Are these good trends? Where should the academic sphere of health be directing its resources?
It’s been an incredible journey thus far. I think it’s our obligation to read and keep up with the steady flow of information. I don’t want to outsource my problems to someone else. I’d rather take the time to learn myself.
The trends I see coming are environmental awareness which the nutrition and holistic healing community are dovetailing off of. People are gaining interest in less medications and are looking for alternative routes to the failed health care system here in America. This has also brought about a spiritual shift as well. We’re connecting the mind, body and spirit instead of tearing them apart into separate entities. I think this is where the big yoga explosion and the legalization of cannabis are coming from and millennials aren’t interested in the old failed systems. We’re interested in progression and change for the most part. The age of information has opened the door to self healing and questioning of what’s really happening in health care. I think these are great trends and I am so excited to be a part of it.
Academia should be directing their focus on staying up to date with the latest evidence. But presenting it in a way the common man can benefit. Not manipulating information to benefit big corporations. The gap is in the presentation not the information. I don’t think we need more evidence at this point to prove that daily exercise, proper sleep, exposing yourself to sunlight and the outdoors, eating organic whole foods, drinking clean water and surrounding yourself in a loving community prevents illness and is required for the human body to thrive. These things are non negotiable. Yet its still so far from common knowledge.
My point here is: It’s simple. Let’s start with the basics and build from there to heal this planet and the human race. No magical discovery of a gene, medication, working at stressful job inside a cubicle, and separating ourselves from society is going to fix the problem. Vote with your dollar if you want change not on a ballot. Support your local farmers and small businesses.
6. If you had $1,000,000 to maximally improve the health of as many people as possible, what would you do?
My dream is to be able to create a project for an annual immersion retreat similar to what Tony Robbins does, but make it very affordable to the common person that will focus on daily routine alteration. Teaching cooking, exercise and play, education series each day, nature immersion and connecting to the earth and your food, mindset development through self love and expression. There are many retreats like this going on now. I just feel as if they are all separate and not brought together as one complete piece. I know I can’t reach everyone, because people are ready when they’re ready. One of my favorite quotes is “when the student is ready the teacher will appear”- unknown.
7. Do you have any closing thoughts? Where can people find more about you and what are your plans for the world of health and athleticism over the next year?
Ask questions and educate yourself everyday, create a filter of truth for yourself to view the world, never settle, love yourself, you’re beautiful in your own ways, be kind to others, get outside and play you’re never too old, eat real food and have fun. Being healthy is exciting not bland and boring.
I’m currently proposing to the school I work at to develop two strength training courses that will teach movement and nutrition to freshman and juniors for next school year. I also began my personal brand called the Alternative Fish which is a youtube channel, facebook and instagram page that will be for information on exactly the topics I covered here. I just started it so bare with me. Lots of posts to come!
Thanks for having me. Really looking forward to this collaboration.
As we settle in the holiday season, it seems like sweets tend to surround us with chocolate temptation and sugary savory cookies. Many folks tend to give in and engulf pounds of desserts over the course of the holiday season. The problem isn’t the sweets themselves, but self-control. Now, I’m not saying to stay away from all desserts or make claims that sugar is evil. If you want some sweets, go ahead! It comes down to self-control and serving sizes. To tell you all to not consume any sweets during Christmas is absurd and can surely ruin the night. It’s also completely understandable to want to stray from desserts because “you don’t want lose your gainz! Or all of your hard work will be a waste”. I can assure you, there is a way to enjoy the holiday season, maintain your gains, and still achieve your goals.
Reach for the Christmas cookies and have a handful. Do not feel guilty about this. Just don’t overdo it like a plate or two stacked with brownies, cookies, candy canes, etc. Now if you exercised that day, you have a little more leniency but still not much, keep it minimal. Here are some tips that may work for you:
- Hungry? Go for a protein snack (Greek yogurt, beef jerky, hard-boiled eggs, protein smoothies, protein bars/cookies). Not the tastiest but better for body composition. How is it better? Protein is more satiating (feel full longer) and has a higher TEF (thermic effect of food), essentially burning more calories during metabolism.
- Drink water! Sometimes hunger may be mistaken for thirst, so if you’re feeling hungry and want a snack, drink some water first then decide if you want to go for that snack. It may also help if you drink water before dinner. This may give you a “full” feeling thus, potentially leading to less food intake.
- Same like the first tip, add more protein than anything on your dinner plate, i.e. chicken breast, turkey, beans, steak, roast beef, etc. Eat your protein first, then go for the mashed potatoes, etc.
- Add fiber to your dish. Fiber also adds satiety. Examples include, broccoli, spinach, cauliflower, celery.
- Use smaller plates. People tend to eat less with smaller plates. Try it out and see if it works. It may not but this is about experimenting.
- Make substitutions. Choose a fruit cup with cottage cheese over a gingerbread cookies and hot chocolate. Choose wine over beer. Simple substitutions like this can help.
- Most importantly, if you lose all self-control and go on a 3-week sweets binge, don’t worry, you will be okay. Enjoy the holiday season!
If looking to make healthier desserts, click here (no affiliation, just cool ideas).
If you’re interested to find out an individualized nutrition plan just for you, contact email@example.com for our nutrition services.
Most of the programs that we design and implement at Ruthless Performance have some meticulously detailed cool-down for an athlete to do following their last exercises of the day. And in most cases these are some combination of mobility drills, breathing techniques, or myofascial release strategies.
Past all of the very significant reasons that a proper cool down in crucial for athlete development, there’s a handful of additional benefits an athlete will receive by doing their prescribed combination of mobility drills at this particular time. When an athlete does these drills early on in the workout, likely in their warm-up or as an accessory drill between main sets, more mobility (active use of ROM) is required of the articulations themselves–like in the spine or at the hip.
But after a workout, while there is more blood circulating in the muscles, the mobility drills will more specifically target these areas–even if it is the same exercise that is done pre-workout.
There also seems to be more lasting changes in range-of-motion when these exercises are completed post-workout. Whereas in the warm-up, these drills serve to enhance proper movement and function during the workout, but the lasting effects seem to be negated by the workouts themselves.
This is why we recommend including high-priority mobility drills in the pre and post-workout time period.