Strength & Conditioning
With the vast expanse that is the winter swim season raipidly approaching, I wanted to take the time to yet again detail one of our swimming programs. In this particular case, we’re going to explain the Ruthless Performance methods that made this program so effective.
To provide context for this case study, we will be talking about a male swimmer, approaching the end of his high school career, who specailizes in short to mid-distance freestyle and butterfly…
We’ll be looking at ‘Day 2’ of his 3-day program, and what we’re doing to get him in-shape for the upcoming swim season.
1. Emphasising Both Activation & Mobility as Needed
Like most other programs we run our athletes through, this workout begins with a comprehenisve warm-up. Athletes are compartmentalized into a warm-up by age, ability, past injuries and training history. From there, we specialize and individualize the workout starting at our ‘A’ Exercises which are very rarely similar from one athlete to the next.
Landmine-based exercises have recently become a frequent addition to our programs because of the unusual loading parameters we see with this exercise variation. As opposed to a traditional barbell exercise, landmine exercises get lighter as the angle of the bar approaches 90 degrees; this has a wide array of benefits, but here we are using this to maximally loading the shoulder at the bottom of the press, while ensuring a greater ROM (range of motion) as we near the top of the exercise. Beyond just encouraging more ROM, this also assists in activation of the Serratus Anterior — a troublesome area for many athletes, which in the case of swimmers can be career ending.
In addition to creating muscle activation in the shoulder, we’re trying to use this ‘A’ circuit to enhance hip mobility. In our A1, the Half-Kneeling Overhead Landmine Press assists in creating hip mobility via Rectus Femoris Stretch caused by the Half-Kneeling position. Though this is a secondary component to the A1, hip mobility is the primary element of the A2 –the weighted cossack squat…
Because this swimmer is primarily a freestyler and butterflier, the hip is exposed to a relatively small ROM. By expanding this capacity in a structured and controlled training environment, we can help minimize injury (while maximizing power output) via enhanced ability of the hips to absorb and generate force outside of the saggital plane.
2. Creating a Neutral Spine Where and When Possible
In a previous article, I explained the differences between flexion and extension intolerant back pain, this particular athlete sits closer to the extension-intolerent end of the spectrum. To mitigate this, we’ve added Band Pull Aparts and 180 Degree Back Extensions as part of his ‘B’ exercise circuit.
Band Pull Aparts are one of the most common exercises within any of the Ruthless Performance programs, regardless of sport; but in the case of swimming, these provide countless benefits. Beyond the primary benefits to swimmers, like scapular control and improved stroke efficiency, we’ve added this as a means of minimizing kyphosis. Like many high school athletes who sit behind a desk for 6+ hours / day, this athlete demonstrates an internally rotated and kyphotic posture. The solution to these problems almost universally starts with a very high volume of band pull aparts.
Though the ‘B2’ is listed as 180 Back Extension, it is talked about and referred to internally as a 180 Hip Extension. Though this may seem semantic it is not. I won’t go into detail here again, though you can find more in our first installment of our Internal Program Review, where we go over this difference in detail.
The video below from our instagram also explains this to some extent with yet another one of our swimmers performing this exercise.
3. Enhance Cardiovascular Capacity, But do so Efficiently
The primary purpose of the off-season program should be to build up strength and other various capacities that are often neglected during the regular swim season. Going into the season, however, should at least provide some basic framework for sport-specific work capacity.
Another one of my frequent rants is that about the purpose and function of the rotator cuff… 4 anatomically independent muscles grouped together because of their function (physiology) with regards to the shoulder, which is simply to maintain the position of the humerus. With this in mind, any time we spend engaging and maintaining a stable shoulder, we are inherently training the rotator cuff. Here, we’re doing so concurrently with a few other goals in mind, enhancing cardiovascular capacity (as mentioned), but also encouraging overhead ROM with the slam ball, generating force outside of the saggital plane, and developing abdonimal activation/ trunk stability during both the C1 and C2 exercises.
Though these aren’t traditionally exercises performed for energy system training, we can manipulate the variables to ellicit this desired response. Rather than simply adding in more sets or extending the length of time to complete the exercises, we’ve focused in on the density component, which is simply the ability to do more work in the same period of time. A 5-minute time cap ensures that from weeks 1-4, the athlete is developing his work capacity, in a manner condusive to short to mid distance swimming events. As opposed to conventional wisdom, maintaining a high level of force output and muscular endurance over this relatively short period of time is all that we need for this particular workout going into more sport-specific pre-season swim training.
Here in Pennsylvania we’re less than a month away from the official start of the statewide whitetail archery hunt. It’s at about this time that hunters will be desperately getting in their target practice with a bow that many have not touched since late archery season or even before the regular firearms season of last year’s hunt.
I don’t advocate for cramming in all of your out-of-season target work last-minute, however there are realities to this. But regardless of if you’ve been maintaining your skills with the bow or not, you can use this time more effectively to fine-tune your bow skills while simultaneously enhancing your physical capabilities and hunting endurance.
Many east-coast hunters will be locked-in to their tree stands for the months of September and October, but even this is not without physical struggle. Likewise, many big-game western hunters will quickly recognize the necessity of physical preparation for the hunt, as the terrain and elevation of the west can end your hunt—or even your life—without adequate preparation.
Though your cardiovascular endurance may have quickly dissipated after the end of last-season’s hunt, it can return almost as quickly (this rapid degradation and development is unique to cardiovascular endurance, unlike the capacity of strength, which shows a much slower return of improvements as well as decrements).
Though not ideal, you still have time to become relatively prepared for the demands of the hunt.
And by doubling-up conditioning work with bow practice, this can be done in half the time, while allowing you to train with the bow in a fatigued state—as you may find yourself when faced with a deer, elk, or other game animal.
Here’s just one of the workouts we recommend to our hunters. The limit to this workout is that you need space, lots of empty space where you can safely target practice and run down range… Therefore, this only works on private property or empty public land…
To start, pick 3 distances that you’re most likely to shoot at, for me, with my fixed-pin set-up, I use 10, 20, and 30 yards. For my training, I also use an uphill with a medium grade.
Start by taking 10 warm-up shots at 10 yards, followed by 5 trips to the target while it sits at 10 yards. Each run should be progressively faster, starting with a brisk walk, ending with a sprint.
Do this yet again with a target at 20 yards… 10 shots, 5 trips.
Guess what you’re doing at 30 yards? Same thing. 10 shots, 5 trips.
As you become more accustomed to this, you can begin to add in more trips, up to 10 sprints at each target range. I don’t recommend running with the bow—some may view this as ‘sport-specific’ but can lead to more asymmetries than necessary. The more variables, like running with the bow, that you add in, the more complicated the process becomes; we’re simply looking for getting you in-shape and target-ready in the most efficient means possible.
After you’ve built yourself up to 10 sprints and 10 shots at all three designated distances, scale back down to 5 trips, but now begin timing each sprint and recording rest. By improving your time on each sprint and maintaining or reducing rest, you’re improving your overall cardiorespiratory endurance across all three primary energy systems (30 yards is by no stretch of the imagination a feat of cardiovascular endurance, but the accumulation of fatigue over the course of all sprints will certainly have beneficial effects on glycolysis, respiratory, and cardiovascular function.
Want to learn more or improve your readiness for the hunt? Email us at info@RuthlessPerformance.com and ask about our Physical Preparation for Big Game Hunters Program.
If you’re not familiar with the Ruthless Performance Mavericks Program, it’s something well-worth looking into as a primary or accessory strength & conditioning program. The program consists of 3-12 workouts per week (depending on season, goals, recovery status, etc.). Though the program is rooted in long-term strength gain, the Mavericks workouts also build up cardiovascular endurance, mental toughness, hypertrophy, and any and all other capacities one would hope to develop through a traditional workout regimen.
This is true to the extent that I’ve personally used the Mavericks program as the base for prepping for events across the athletic continuum; from a 65 mile cycling race spanning from Philly to Atlantic City to powerlifting meets. The program has also been the primary physical preparation tool for big-game hunters, swimmers, CrossFit athletes, and more.
The program is so versatile because of the formative and fundamental role that a well-designed strength & conditioning program has on any athletic or performance-oriented endeavor. By building up such an encompassing portfolio of exercises, energy system capacities, movement proficiencies, and athleticism as a whole, individuals are easily able to transition from one skill or sport to the next, and do so at an extraordinarily high level.
The Ruthless Performance Mavericks Program differs from some of our other programs in that the workouts are the same from one individual to the next, only differing in load, intensity, and an individual’s overall athletic capabilities. Emphasis can be moved throughout the program as well. For example, a bodybuilder may take the accessory volume more seriously, while a powerlifter may focus more on the strength and primary exercises involved. In our Athletic Development programs, each program is individualized outside of the warm-up. Similarly, among personal training clients, every aspect is much more up to the goals of the individual. The Mavericks program is a cost-effective tool to build an encompassing base of athleticism and is great for individuals who may get bored of traditional or more predictable programing. This program is no better or worse, but if you think it may be right for you, reach out at RuthlessPerformance.com/contact to get started.
Today we’re going to show you our current main exercises and how they fit into the bigger picture of the Ruthless Performance Mavericks programming…
We’re seriously focused on some elements of training that we’ve largely neglected in the past. These elements are density, volume, and lactate threshold. These elements of programing are in most of our workout bouts, but rarely break into our ‘A1-A2’ sets (or to the unindoctrinated, this would be referred to as the main work).
Of our currently programed 7 workouts, 4 are comprised of heavy, high volume-strength work—these will be the focus of today’s post.
All of which are done 10×10, and as an ‘EMOM’ (every minute on the minute). The traditional lifts don’t always transition very well into this type of super high volume training and can be detrimental to long-term and short-term central nervous system function, this is why the exercise selection is slightly odd…
Day 1 – Front Squat – 10×10 – EMOM
Day 2 – Incline Barbell Press – 10×10 – EMOM
Day 3 – Rest/ Active Recovery/ Conditioning
Day 4 – Romanian Deadlift – 10×10 – EMOM
Day 5 – Overhead Press – 10×10 – EMOM
Day 6 – Rest/ Active Recovery/ Conditioning
Day 7 – Rest/ Skill Work
The primary work as listed above is not the entirety of the strength workouts. There is always accessory work which varries from day to day. The Front Squat Day, for example, may be followed by a circuit of 3 strength exercises, like Hamstring Curls, Contralateral KB RDLs, and Overhead Med Ball Slams. Then, either another 2-exercise circuit like calf raises and toes-to-bar, or a quick conditioner like Rower Repeats or a Stationary Bike Tabata…
Skill work varies from person to person, depending on their goals or upcoming seasons. For me, skill work currently consists of target work with the bow for the upcoming hunting season. Conditioning work consists of a combination of hill sprints, strongman work, long-distance steady-state cardio, rower, or cycling. Conditioning workouts are included with the Maverick’s program, but these tend to be only for individuals working specifically on the Maverick’s program.
For athletes competing in CrossFit, Powerlifting, Hunters, Cyclists, or Runners, their conditioning days and times are traditionally filled by their skill specific training or by the mandates of their coaches.
A 10×10 EMOM is by no means standard programing for the Maverick’s Training, but we recognize the need to maximize these capacities. For this four-week cycle, we are trying to maximize hypertrophy, tolerance for higher-volume strength work, as well as to back-off of CNS input before coming back with some higher-intensity conjugate style training.
Sign-up or learn more about the Ruthless Performance Maverick’s programing by emailing us at info@RuthlessPerformance.com
The strength and conditioning community is far too fractioned; proprietary training programs and secrecy hide the inner workings of many sports performance coaching theories and facilities. At Ruthless Performance, we find this idea entirely backwards—this mentality is a sign of some fragile egos and insecurity within the industry. To do our part in mitigating this, we’re going to start a new on-going series where we’ll deconstruct some aspect of a selected program from one of our Ruthless Performers. Hopefully this will help coaches and athletes get a better idea of programming and the science of sports performance, regardless of their affiliation with Ruthless Performance.
Our inaugural installment of our Internal Program Review begins with a look at Day 1 of a male, college swimmer’s dryland training program. First, we’ll provide some context…
This swimmer is in between the freshman and sophomore season of his collegiate swimming career. Currently, we’re training him 5x per week. Most workouts have their own day of the week, but occasionally he’ll do doubles if schedule conflicts are present.
As you can see in the figure, his programming is currently changing every 4 weeks and his workout week can most easily be broken down as follows, note that each day is not specifically ‘upper’ or ‘lower’ but rather these ideas denote the dominant exercises for that particular day:
Day 1 – Lower Body
Day 2 – Upper Body
Day 3 – Conditioning
Day 4 – Upper Body
Day 5 – Lower Body
For our Internal Program Review, we’ll examine day 1…
1. Box Squat
More than 80% of athletes that we see on a regular basis have some box squat variant somewhere in their training macrocycle, usually this is on a recurring basis as well. The box squat provides a variety of benefits, going into detail here would be too great for the scope of this article. If you’re interested in learning more about how to box squat as well as their benefits, I would recommend performing a quick search for Louie Simmons of Westside Barbell and the Box Squat.
In this case, we’re slowly reintegrating the squat into his program after having some time off following his long swim season. Here, we’ve added the box squat as a means to help assist in developing leg strength, posterior weight shift (integral to developing a proficient and technically sound squat) and building muscle to subsequently assist in force production coming off of the blocks and during turns.
2. Hanging Straight Leg Raises
A crucial component to any strength and conditioning program developed by Ruthless Performance is a substantial element of force transfer in various planes. In our A2, which is paired with the A1 (Box Squats), we’re emphasizing this force transfer, and we’re doing so specifically in the Sagittal Plane.
With the Hanging Straight Leg Raises (HSLR), we’re also building the anterior chain, specifically the abdominals. Though swimmers are no stranger to ‘core’ exercises, they can be unfamiliar with lower-repetition strength-dominant work in the abdominals like this. Whether its poolside after practice or at-home at the behest of their coaches, swimmers frequently train with high repetition crunches, sit-ups, or poorly performed planks.
Exercises like the HSLR are rarely given at Ruthless as these can place too much emphasis on the Rectus Femoris which already receives ample stimulation during regular swim practice. But unlike with Bent Leg Raises, the straight leg variation provides more stimuli to the abdominals, which can partially explain why it is much harder than bent leg variations (also worth searching, but beyond the scope of our review: passive insufficiency).
Something also worth noting with the HSLR is how we manipulate this to maximize efficacy. With most weighted exercises, this is done via an increase in resistance. With a bodyweight exercise like this, we are slightly more confined in our ability to progress this over a 4-week period. Therefore we’re slowly adding more repetitions to each set throughout the program.
3. 180 Hip Extension
If you’ve never trained with us, you’ve likely gotten familiar with this exercise being referred to as a ‘back extension’. This is partially a misnomer, specifically at Ruthless Performance as we actively coach a rounded upper back on this exercise to maximize glute input, while minimizing lower back activation.
The erector muscles already receive a great deal of stimulation any time the back/hips are being used as a fulcrum (which is close to any time you are doing a non-isolation/machine exercise). Additionally, the capillary network of the low back is rather poor, causing a slow recovery time. Doing low-back work in addition to all of this could be a decrement to performance rather than performance enhancing.
This can be progressed with weights or bands as needed, but a large emphasis should initially be placed on glute activation during this exercise rather than on a large range of motion (ROM). We typically encourage an external femoral rotation when possible, which further activates the glutes on this. When the glutes can’t contract any more on the hip extension, there is no reason to add more ROM.
4. Calf Raises
One of the benefits of working with an athlete with such frequency is that we can get into some details holding them back that would otherwise be unachievable on a 2x or 3x /wk program. With this athlete, poor calf hypertrophy is likely a weak link holding back lower body development. From a physics standpoint, mass can’t be added without a broad base of support. Consider the tyrannosaurus rex, with its massive legs serving as a point of contact and base of support, or in engineering the structure and shape of the world’s largest buildings.
Specifically, to build mass in the calves without taking too much time away from more pertinent programming, we focus on density. Through the course of the program, we’re trying to have this athlete perform more reps with the fewest amount of sets possible. It is very rare to manipulate the volume so drastically from weeks 1 to weeks 4, but this is precisely what is needed in this situation.
5. High Handle Sled Push
We rarely have our swimmers perform energy system training, but in this case, the athlete is out of season and will need to preserve some basic level of cardiovascular conditioning for when he returns to college in the fall. You can learn more about our theories and thoughts on energy system training for swimmers in our article aptly titled “Why Ruthless Performance Doesn’t Emphasize Energy System Training for Our Swimmers”.
The sled provides an opportunity to help generate greater ROM between the legs, build concentric strength, increase hip and ankle mobility, and is just a generally versatile conditioning tool. You’ll also notice that the distance is relatively short. He’s been performing these bouts between 6-10 seconds. This by no means will provide an amount of conditioning conducive to in-pool training and performance, but will help maintain and improve ATP usage at the end of a long workout, which transfers nicely into a strong finish in a mid-distance/distance event.
Have any questions about what you see or would you like further clarification? Send us your questions at info@RuthlessPerformance.com. Your question may even turn into inspiration for a blog or social media post.
Outside of a handful of technological advances in competition suits and some isolated factions of coaches and athletes, the sport of swimming is largely stuck in a late 90’s – early 2000’s mentality; which is a generous approximation on my part, as the sport of swimming in the 90’s-00’s wasn’t all that much better from the handful of decades preceding it. This old school training mindset included a great emphasis on high yardage in the pool, followed by a big taper leading up to important and championship swim meets.
The high yardage/ big taper approach certainly has its applications, but much like how swimmers took the alleged 10,000+ kCal ‘Phelps Diet’ leading up to the 2008 Olympics as an excuse to overconsume and under-nourish with empty-nutrient and calorie-rich foods, braggadocios swim coaches have hijacked the good intent of high-yardage programs, and now misinformed coaches are globally vying for title of who can put their athletes through the most pain.
Since the semi-archaic idea of mega-yardage programs still have some merit, I’d like to focus dryland training, the dated and frequently perpetuated fallacies surrounding this, as well as what Ruthless Performance does with our swimmers and what other high-level programs are engaged in from a strength training perspective.
This well-known Ruthless Performance philosophy regarding dryland training for swimmers leads many concerned parents and swim coaches to ask the Ruthless Performance staff about our programs. Since swimming requires so much cardio, shouldn’t that be a main part of dryland training?
Simply put, no. But here’s the longer answer…
In the past, dryland training has mirrored pool-based training very closely. This would include ideas like distance running and other high intensity-based conditioning routines (and if you’re lucky, some lackadaisically performed, poorly designed rotator cuff band complexes). Not only is this additional energy system training unnecessary (during the in-season), but it can also be burdensome, ineffective, and at worst, harmful to performance.
One of the main reasons we don’t program a large amount of energy system training in our swimmers’ training programs is because of the sheer volume of energy system work that swimmers get while in the pool. Most swimmers can get through a large part of the warm-up without realizing that they are engaging in conditioning already. Add the various work sets done through a workout, and then repeated on a nearly daily basis, and you have a recipe for fantastic cardiopulmonary function and sport-specific energy-system development.
The problem is that coaches too frequently confuse the cardiovascular demands of the sport of swimming with the cardiovascular demands of swim practice.
Running is one such frequently assigned dryland activity for swimmers, used as a means of developing cardiovascular function. This is in part, due to the perception that swimming is a sport which requires a lot of cardio—which it does. The problem is that coaches too frequently confuse the cardiovascular demands of the sport of swimming with the cardiovascular demands of swim practice.
Adding more conditioning work on top of what is done in practice is simply providing an athletes cardiovascular system with diminishing marginal returns on ability to practice; this is largely ineffective because of how quickly the cardiovascular system responds and adapts to training stimuli. A few weeks of pre-season practice and a base level of cardiovascular function is restored to the point where an athlete can successfully compete at meets and return to more rigorous in-season training. Since most events are over in less than two minutes, this style of dryland training can become redundant and inefficient.
Adding running or various other conditioning modalities on top of traditional in-pool training can yield greater performance; just not as great as swimming performance could be if we focused on some other modalities and training tools. This is a conversation for another day entirely, but all of the strength-based training that we have our swimmers perform help in a variety of ways. Our strength training does, in fact, enhance energy system capacities, specifically the phosphocreatine (quick anaerobic energy system pathway). This is the system which leads to faster starts, quick turns, breakouts, and even negative splits in distance events.
All this to say that strength training with minimal traditional cardiovascular input is the primary way we train our athletes and for good reason. Rather than simply packing on additional volume of similar work, we are building up muscles which help prevent overuse injuries, minimizing the impact of training stressors, improve reaction time, coordination, catch in the water and so on. This allows athletes the opportunity to train more optimally in the pool, which is the primary vessel for developing skill-specific capacities in swimmers.
Strength Training is an emerging field in the sport of swimming. As more and more coaches, parents, and athletes begin to understand the extent to which a strength training program can help drop swim times and reduce injury, the more I’m approached by a growing and widening audience about, not only the Ruthless Athletic‘s Dryland Training for Swimmers Program, but also, general tips for using land-based techniques to get better in the pool.
As this audience widens, the frequency of parents approaching me to develop programs for their age-group swimmers increases as well. There’s a great deal of misinformation in the mainstream media about various forms of strength training for swimmers in general, but even moreso for youth athletes and youth or age-group swimmers.
The information herein are some quick tips and answers to some very frequently asked questions which I receive from both parents, coaches, athletic administrators, and even these young athletes themselves.
Strength Training is NOT Detrimental to Youth Athletes
The idea that strength training is detrimental to prepubescent and pubescent athletes transcends the sport of swimming. Parents, coaches, and entire athletic staffs may fall prey to this line of thinking.
As mentioned in this fantastic piece by Mike Robertson: “the stresses in sport far exceed what happens in the weight room!” Mike goes on to say “For example, in strength training a good measure of strength would be if you could squat or deadlift 2x your body weight. In other words if you weighed 175, if you could squat and/or deadlift 350, you’d be considered strong…”
…And then follows with some information that most people intuitively understand, but seem to ignore with regards to strength training…
“However, the forces that you see in everyday events like running (4-6x body weight) and jumping (6-10x body weight) far exceed anything done in the weight room.”
Speed and Agility Drills are Overlooked for Swimmers
Injuries in the pool are actually rather rare. Swimmers may develop chronic, or overuse injuries from their time in the pool, but the likelihood of sports injuries increases as an under-prepared swimmer finds themselves in a precarious position on land.
Often times, swimmers may find themselves in a pick-up game of football, volleyball, or some other higher-impact land sport where an injury could occur. Because these swimmers are so unprepared for this medium (court, field, track, etc.) they run a higher risk of injury than their friends who may participate in some of the various land-based sports.
While preparing for these kind of extenuating circumstances may seem like overkill, the number of coaches who’ve showed up to practice to then be faced with an injured star swimmer from similar circumstances to the aforementioned example is astronomical.
The Goal of Strength Training is Not the Goal of Swimming Practice
Swimming coaches tend to have misconceptions about the goals of strength training; a problem propagated extensively within the field. Coaches tend to want land-based exercise to replicate what is done in the pool, however, while the goals of both are the betterment of the athlete, the applications are entirely different.
Because pool workouts develop skill work and energy system development, coaches mistakenly believe strength training should be done in a similar way, usually with little rest, high heart rates, and in a manner which replicates the actions of sport; this view is plainly wrong.
Land work should help restore optimal function to the various joints and postures which the swimming strokes can hinder. By spending hours in the pool completing high yardage training, then coupling this with ‘sport specific work’ (such as swim cable trainers), you are effectively exacerbating shoulder and hip ailments common to overuse injuries.
To have the most effective ‘sport specific’ strength training, a program should consist of various counter measures. This ensures a neutral posture onto which the swimming coaches can pack on yardage and intensity. Doing so in addition to more of the same exercises on land will definitively lead to pain, burnout, and injury.
Consider the above when trying to formulate a program for your youth athletes. Remember, Ruthless Athletics does offer coaching services to individual athletes, as well as, entire sports teams. For more information on these services, swim team consulting, details on any of the various other services provided, or to simply ask a general question, feel free to reach out at RuthlessAthletics@gmail.com.