Sports performance

A Quick Guide to Hydration for Performance

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The weather is warming up which means dehydration sets in faster. Dehydration has major effects on the body such as electrolyte imbalances, cramping, headaches, and reduced athletic performance, potentially leading to heat stroke and even death. Dehydration varies widely amongst individuals based on their hydration status prior to training, practice gear body composition, type of training, and an individual’s heat acclimation.  Therefore, rehydration should be tailored to one’s specific hydration status either pre, during, or post-workout. If you’re feeling bold, here is a formula from the NSCA to determine your sweat rate:

 

  • Step 1. Weigh yourself naked before exercise (e.g., 180 lb).
  • Step 2. Exercise for 1 hour (drink normally during exercise but avoid eating) and track your fluid intake (e.g., 4 oz)
  • Step 3. Weigh yourself naked post-exercise (e.g., 178.5 lb).
  • Step 4. To calculate your sweat rate simply subtract your post-exercise weight from your pre-exercise weight then add the weight/volume of any fluids you consumed.

 

Example

180 lb (pre-exercise) – 178.5 lb (post-exercise) = 1.5 lb (sweat loss) + 4 oz (fluids consumed during exercise) (0.25 lb) = 1.75 lb of sweat lost per hour

 

Knowing your sweat loss can give you an idea how much water should be replaced but most importantly it can be indicator of heat acclimation. Training in hot environments can lead to adaptation thus potentially resulting in a decline in sweat loss. A simple and effective way to check to hydration status is by the color of urine. An easy way to remember is by distinguishing two colors; Apple juice color (urine) = dehydrated, Lemonade color (urine) = hydrated.

 

Here some general quick tips for proper hydration:

 

  • Before workout, check the color of urine. If dehydrated drink, until the color of Hydration Statusurine looks like lemonade.
  • If workouts are less than 1hr, water is sufficient. Recommendations are 3–8 oz. every 15–20 minutes (a gulp is about 1–2 oz.)
  • If workouts are more than 1hr, you should drink liquids with the combination of carbs + electrolytes, 3-8 oz. every 15-20 minutes.
    • Note: Fluids may vary depending on intensity of temperature, altitude, and/or humidity.
  • After workouts, weigh yourself and for every 1lb lost, rehydrate with 16-24 oz. of water.
  • More than a 2% weight loss post workout indicates dehydration so replenish soon.
  • Its key to make sure you are replacing not only water, but sodium from sweat loss.
  • Its recommended to rehydrate with a carb + electrolyte drink.
  • Continue to check hydration status with the color of your urine.

 

By Jesse Rodriguez

Jesse’s focus and emphasis is on Sports Nutrition. He holds a bachelor’s degree in Nutritional Science with the addition of a CSCS certification from the NSCA. Jesse swam for the El Salvador National Team and competed at the international level. Jesse has worked at USC with the Strength and Conditioning program and UCLA as the lead intern for Sports Nutrition. He is currently a dietetic intern to complete requirements for the Registered Dietitian exam and obtain his professional license. During his free time, Jesse continues to strength train, Olympic lift, and stay up-to-date on the latest nutrition trends. Lastly, Jesse is a member of the Academy of Nutrition & Dietetics, National Strength and Conditioning Association, and Collegiate & Professional Sports Dietitians Association.

Nina S. Stachenfeld, PhD. Assessing hydration in the laboratory and field. February 2013. http://www.gssiweb.org/en/sports-science-exchange/article/sse-111-assessing-hydration-in-the-laboratory-and-field#articleTopic_1
https://www.nsca.com/education/articles/trainer-tips/hydration/
https://www.hprc-online.org/articles/hydration-basics

Featured Fitness Content: Volume 46

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Personal Training, Coaching, and Strength & Conditioning

138 | Dane Miller | Country Boys Can Survive Hosted by Zach Even Esh

Everything You Need To Know To Write Incredible Programs By Nancy Newell

Assess And Correct Leg Dominance  By Jennifer Pilotti via Breaking Muscle

Should Your Personal Trainer Be Licensed? By Jeremy Lau via Halevy Life

 

Weight Loss, Nutrition, and General Health

Himalayan Salt Lamps: Benefits and Myths By Helen West via Healthline

If it Fits With Your Micros: The Overlooked Key to Sports Performance By Zach Long

Restore Your Breathing and Improve Your Conditioning – Part 2 By Jim Smith

 

Strength Training, Powerlifting, and Bodybuilding

5 Advanced Squat Variations You Haven’t Tried By Meghan Callaway via Girls Gone Strong

Will Cardio Give Your Weight Training An Advantage?  By Dean Somerset

The Best Exercises You’re Not Doing for Shoulders – Cross Cable Flyes with “Y” Press  By Jim Smith

 

Motivation, Business, and Success

Freedom, fairness and equality By Seth Godin

The Salt Shaker Theory: 3 Principles of Effective Management By Mark Fisher via Business for Unicorns

 How to Set Boundaries with Clients By Michael Keeler via Business for Unicorns

 

Physical Therapy, Alignment, and Injury Prevention

How to Fix Rounded Shoulders  By Annette Verpillot via Strength Sensei

The Science Behind Cryotherapy, Ice Baths, Fat-Loss and Recovery  By Kevin Masson via John Rusin

 

Research

The No Barbell Experiment On Squat And Deadlift And Hip Thrust Strength: The Results  By Bret Contreras

 

Ruthless Performance Coaches’ Content

Lecture Takeaways: Ruthless Performance Methods & Practices for Peak Athletic Function By John Matulevich

 

Lecture Takeaways: Ruthless Performance Methods & Practices for Peak Athletic Function

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Its easy to imagine how a lecture scheduled for 30 minutes, on a topic as encompassing as optimizing performance, could end up being an hour and 6-minute open-ended discussion. This is precisely what happened this past week at Bloomsburg University during our guest presentation on how Ruthless Performance trains individuals to achieve high performance.

The content of this lecture ranged from specific exercises to an exploration of the Central Nervous System; similarly, questions ranged from the efficacy of BCAA’s to proper running gait—all of which led to an extremely informative and productive talk, filled with content and subsequent questions.

Below is a summary of some of the most important takeaways from this lecture. Remember, human performance is a broad topic, but the information below meets some objective criteria for significance within the theories and practices we endorse at Ruthless Performance.

 

First, a Definition of Terms

Because there is not one set definition of ‘high performance’ across sports and fitness endeavors, let’s assume the definition is as follows: high performance is the ability to perform within the top 10% of your own ability within any fitness doctrine.

For a 5K runner, this means being able to run a 5K within a margin of 10% of your best time at your current state of training. Similarly, for a weightlifter, this means being able to Clean & Jerk or Snatch within 10% of your current capacity for a 1RM. This is not to dismiss linear periodization (though Ruthless Performance typically does shy away from this style) nor is this a sleight on tapering for a significant bout or competition.

During a high-mileage segment of a marathon runner’s training regimen, she may be outside of this 10% margin from a previous race or time. The 10% margin of performance as defined here is referring to a precise training state. In the case of the marathon runner, her ability to complete a half-marathon trial within 10% of her previous season’s high-mileage training cycle is what we are referring to. The closer the training variables are, the more applicable this rule becomes.

 

The Motivational Training Montage is Just the Icing on the Cake

The significance of training to perform is predicated on fundamental health and wellness practices. A 6-hour a day training program would get world-class athletes no where were it not for a broad base of fundamental behaviors.Basics of Health & Function

These behaviors are known universally at some intuitive level, but not always acted upon. What could be viewed as boring and frivolous can make the difference between 6 more weeks of training and 6 weeks of sitting out with the flu while your competition trains because you didn’t get a flu vaccination from your primary care provider.

A similar situation could be ignoring the necessity for injury care work and corrective exercise during the early onset stages of shoulder pain or movement dysfunction as presented in a movement screen. The examples here are limitless, suffice it to say that all of the traditional variables of wellness like sleep quality, nutrition, lifestyle stress, and on, are all predecessors to your ability to train and compete within our newly defined parameters of ‘high performance’.

 

More to Come…

This just grazes the surface of the lecture but provides valuable insights into some fundamentals of high performance. First, high performance must be defined; when a term is open-ended, its implications are only speculative and unattainable. Second, high performance is the sum of the boring but necessary components of life that makes an athlete healthy enough to train and compete within their specific doctrine.

As we continue to review the Ruthless Performance Methods & Practices for Peak Athletic Function lecture, we’ll cover nutrition for high performance, ‘anti-specificity training’, universally essential exercises, and the role of the central nervous system in high performance.

Have a question on this topic or want to train with Ruthless Performance? Contact us via email at info@RuthlessPerformance.com, RuthlessPerformance.com/contact, and be sure to follow us on social media at @RuthlessPerform on Twitter and Instagram.

Featured Fitness Content: Volume 44

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Personal Training, Coaching, and Strength & Conditioning

Performance Programming Principles: Installment 2  By Eric Cressey

The 3 Main Goals of an Assessment By Dean Somerset

Step-by-Step Glute Training By Mike Robertson

 

Weight Loss, Nutrition, and General Health

Why You Might Not Need to Learn More About Nutrition By Mike Roussell

Carbohydrates – My Take on Carbs By Charles Poliquin

The Greatest Public Health Mistake of the 20th Century By Joseph Mercola

Honey Lemon Water: An Effective Remedy or Urban Myth? By Jillian Kubala via Health Line

7 Science-Based Health Benefits of Selenium By Jillian Kubala via Health Line

 

Strength Training, Powerlifting, and Bodybuilding

Are You Making These Strength Training Mistakes By G John Mullen via COR

Complete Core Questions By Michael Boyle

Get Tough: A Beginner’s Guide To Impact Training By Walter Dorey via Breaking Muscle

 

Motivation, Business, and Success

The Power of Accepting Personal Responsibility By Jen Comas via Girls Gone Strong

Truth: Half of What We Call ‘Fitness’ Isn’t Fitness at All By Lee Boyce

Before you design a chart or infographic By Seth Godin

Don’t create new content. Repurpose content. By Sol Orwell

 

Physical Therapy, Alignment, and Injury Prevention

[VIDEO] Recent Training and Evaluation Insights By Charlie Weingroff

Research

Science Is Self-Correcting – The Case Of The Hip Thrust And Its Effects On Speed By Bret Contreras

Featured Fitness Content: Volume 42

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Personal Training, Coaching, and Strength & Conditioning

What is DOMS and How Do You Deal With It? via COR

Beyond Mastery: Kettlebell Flow Workout  By Karen Smith via Girls Gone Strong

Restore Your Breathing and Improve Your Conditioning via Diesel Strength

Coaching art & science  By Vern Gambetta via HMMR Media

 

Weight Loss, Nutrition, and General Health

Could you be developing an autoimmune disease? By Buddy Touchinsky

The Hidden, Unspoken Dangers About Oral Contraceptives By Justin Janoska via Metabolic Effect

Does “low carb” have an official definition? By Kamal Patel via Examine

 

Strength Training, Powerlifting, and Bodybuilding

The Deadlift: 3 Reasons By Mark Rippetoe via Starting Strength

Tip: Movement Prep for Olympic Lifting By Wil Fleming via T-Nation

Tip: How to Bring Up a Weak Body Part By John Meadows T-Nation

 

Motivation, Business, and Success

Why The Easy Life Breeds Weakness In AND Out of The Gym By Zach Even Esh

6 Things Entrepreneurship Can Teach You About Fitness  By Mark Fisher via Mark Fisher Fitness

Discounts vs. Packages in Your Cash Practice By Aaron LeBauer via The OMPT

Seeing and believing By Seth Godin

3 Ways to Improve Your Customer Service, Starting Today  By Michael Keeler

 

Physical Therapy, Alignment, and Injury Prevention

Life Lessons I Learned from My Physical Therapist  By Stella Kaufman via Mark Fisher Fitness

 

Research

Can supplemental vitamin D improve sleep? By Kamal Patel via Examine

Do high-carbohydrate diets increase the risk of death?  By Kamal Patel via Examine

What I Learned About Injury Rates from Surveying 1,900 Powerlifters By Andrew Patton via Stronger by Science

 

Ruthless Performance Coaches’ Content

Why Ruthless Performance Doesn’t Emphasize Energy System Training for Our Swimmers By John Matulevich via Ruthless Performance

Why Ruthless Performance Doesn’t Emphasize Energy System Training for Our Swimmers

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Outside of a handful of technological advances in competition suits and some isolated factions of coaches and athletes, the sport of swimming is largely stuck in a late 90’s – early 2000’s mentality; which is a generous approximation on my part, as the sport of swimming in the 90’s-00’s wasn’t all that much better from the handful of decades preceding it. This old school training mindset included a great emphasis on high yardage in the pool, followed by a big taper leading up to important and championship swim meets.

 

The high yardage/ big taper approach certainly has its applications, but much like how swimmers took the alleged 10,000+ kCal ‘Phelps Diet’ leading up to the 2008 Olympics as an excuse to overconsume and under-nourish with empty-nutrient and calorie-rich foods, braggadocios swim coaches have hijacked the good intent of high-yardage programs, and now misinformed coaches are globally vying for title of who can put their athletes through the most pain.

 

Since the semi-archaic idea of mega-yardage programs still have some merit, I’d like to focus dryland training, the dated and frequently perpetuated fallacies surrounding this, as well as what Ruthless Performance does with our swimmers and what other high-level programs are engaged in from a strength training perspective.

 

This well-known Ruthless Performance philosophy regarding dryland training for swimmers leads many concerned parents and swim coaches to ask the Ruthless Performance staff about our programs. Since swimming requires so much cardio, shouldn’t that be a main part of dryland training?

 

Simply put, no. But here’s the longer answer…

 

In the past, dryland training has mirrored pool-based training very closely. This would include ideas like distance running and other high intensity-based conditioning routines (and if you’re lucky, some lackadaisically performed, poorly designed rotator cuff band complexes). Not only is this additional energy system training unnecessary (during the in-season), but it can also be burdensome, ineffective, and at worst, harmful to performance.

 

One of the main reasons we don’t program a large amount of energy system training in our swimmers’ training programs is because of the sheer volume of energy system work that swimmers get while in the pool. Most swimmers can get through a large part of the warm-up without realizing that they are engaging in conditioning already. Add the various work sets done through a workout, and then repeated on a nearly daily basis, and you have a recipe for fantastic cardiopulmonary function and sport-specific energy-system development.

The problem is that coaches too frequently confuse the cardiovascular demands of the sport of swimming with the cardiovascular demands of swim practice.

Running is one such frequently assigned dryland activity for swimmers, used as a means of developing cardiovascular function. This is in part, due to the perception that swimming is a sport which requires a lot of cardio—which it does. The problem is that coaches too frequently confuse the cardiovascular demands of the sport of swimming with the cardiovascular demands of swim practice.

 

Adding more conditioning work on top of what is done in practice is simply providing an athletes cardiovascular system with diminishing marginal returns on ability to practice; this is largely ineffective because of how quickly the cardiovascular system responds and adapts to training stimuli. A few weeks of pre-season practice and a base level of cardiovascular function is restored to the point where an athlete can successfully compete at meets and return to more rigorous in-season training. Since most events are over in less than two minutes, this style of dryland training can become redundant and inefficient.

 

Adding running or various other conditioning modalities on top of traditional in-pool training can yield greater performance; just not as great as swimming performance could be if we focused on some other modalities and training tools. This is a conversation for another day entirely, but all of the strength-based training that we have our swimmers perform help in a variety of ways. Our strength training does, in fact, enhance energy system capacities, specifically the phosphocreatine (quick anaerobic energy system pathway). This is the system which leads to faster starts, quick turns, breakouts, and even negative splits in distance events.

 

All this to say that strength training with minimal traditional cardiovascular input is the primary way we train our athletes and for good reason. Rather than simply packing on additional volume of similar work, we are building up muscles which help prevent overuse injuries, minimizing the impact of training stressors, improve reaction time, coordination, catch in the water and so on. This allows athletes the opportunity to train more optimally in the pool, which is the primary vessel for developing skill-specific capacities in swimmers.

 

Featured Fitness Content: Volume 41

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Personal Training, Coaching, and Strength & Conditioning

The Complete Guide to Dynamic Swimming Warm-up for Swimmers via COR

Reverse Engineering The Plank By Charlie Weingroff

 

Weight Loss, Nutrition, and General Health

The surprising truth about sugar.  By Brian St. Pierre & Krista Scott-Dixon via Precision Nutrition

Artificial sweeteners fail dieters; cause health risks By Buddy Touchinsky

Hack Your Mood & Optimize Your Sleep By Ben House via Onnit Academy

5 Life-Changing Nutrition Tips for New Moms By Jesse Mundell via Girls Gone Strong

 

Strength Training, Powerlifting, and Bodybuilding

So You Say People Who Don’t Squat or Deadlift will End Up Broken…  By Lee Boyce

5 Keys to Training Success By Mike Robertson

 

Motivation, Business, and Success

Getting More Dream Clients By Being More Who You Really Are  By Mark Fisher via Business for Unicorns

Four Apps That Improve My Business and Lower My Stress  By Michael Keeler via Business for Unicorns

 

Physical Therapy, Alignment, and Injury Prevention

A Better Way to Mobilize the Wrist  By Erson Religioso

How to Spot and Correct Hamstring Tightness By Brent Frayser via COR

Why Serratus Anterior Matters  With Eric Cressey

 

Research

Science Is Self-Correcting – The Case Of The Hip Thrust And Its Effects On Speed By Bret Contreras

Do probiotics improve quality of life in seasonal allergies? By Kamal Patel via Examine

21 of the best arguments for and against coconut oil  By Kamal Patel via Examine

 

Featured Fitness Content: Volume 40

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Personal Training, Coaching, and Strength & Conditioning

Trouble Shooting Your Program: 5 Powerful Principles for Better Adaptation By Jeff Moyer via Just Fly Sports

Perceived Value and the Fitness Industry By Dean Somerset

You’re Supporting the Get Rich Quick Schemes of 21 Year Olds, and It’s Ruining Fitness By Lee Boyce

Online Coaching: Past, Present and Future By Mike Robertson

 

Weight Loss, Nutrition, and General Health

The Truth About Coconut Oil and Your Heart By Sean Hyson via Onnit Academy

Having low blood pressure also carries health risks By Buddy Touchinsky

 

Strength Training, Powerlifting, and Bodybuilding

Step Up Your Quad And Glute Strength And Hypertrophy With Step-Downs  By Meghan Callaway

 

Motivation, Business, and Success

The TV Shows You Watch Are Making You Broke  By Tim Denning via Addicted 2 Success

Forget “career hacks”… Here’s the real key to career success that almost no one is talking about.  via Precision Nutrition

3 STRONG Life Success Tips & Why Successful People Are Considered “Crazy” By Zach Even Esh

Brandscaping and the Fitness Industry By Eric Cressey

45 Lessons I’ve Learned Along The Way…  By Pat Rigsby

 

Physical Therapy, Alignment, and Injury Prevention

2 Halfs of a Hamstring  By Dean Somerset

5 Reasons Why I Don’t Use the Sleeper Stretch and Why You Shouldn’t Either By Mike Reinold via The Manual Therapist

Must-Follow Guide for Strength Training AFTER Physical Therapy  via COR

 

Research

The No Barbell Experiment On Squat And Deadlift And Hip Thrust Strength  By Bret Contreras

Featured Fitness Content: Volume 39

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Personal Training, Coaching, and Strength & Conditioning

Interview with Lee Taft on Coaching Agility, Speed and Athletic Movement By Joel Smith with Lee Taft

Why I Don’t Like Scap Push-ups By Eric Cressey

 

Weight Loss, Nutrition, and General Health

How Much Cardio Do You Need To Get Ripped For Summer?  By Sean Hyson via Onnit Academy

A Really Bad Long Term Strategy for Weight Loss By Mike Roussell

Doctors should emphasize exercise, not weight loss By Buddy Touchinsky

 

Strength Training, Powerlifting, and Bodybuilding

8 Mobility Moves For Better Squatting, Pressing, and Pulling By Mark DiSalvo via Onnit Academy

7 Tips for a Bigger Bench  By Bret Contreras

3 Ways to Reduce Stress and Improve Recovery During Your Next Workout By Harold Gibbons via Mark Fisher Fitness

28 Years of Lifting: Strength Training In Your 40s & Training As You Get Older By Zach Even Esh

 

Motivation, Business, and Success

5 Powerful Life Lessons From the Book Tools of Titans by Tim Ferriss By Liam Seed via Addicted 2 Success

How To *Not* Be A Spineless Leader By Tim Denning via Addicted 2 Success

How to Build a Fitness Practice that Brings You Joy  By Elizabeth Stacey via Mark Fisher Fitness

Waking up to life By Kim Lloyd

 

Physical Therapy, Alignment, and Injury Prevention

6 Hip Mobility Drills Everyone Should Perform By Mike Reinold

[VIDEO] Communicating with Docs, PTs working as Strength Coaches & Essential Reading for Students With Mike Reinold

Stretching Isn’t Bullshit  By Jasper De Coninck via Dean Somerset

 

Research

Fact check: Is boxed macaroni and cheese actually toxic?  By Kamal Patel via Examine

 

Ruthless Performance Coaches’ Content

Why Do We Need Fats in Our Diet? By Jesse Rodriguez

Featured Fitness Content: Volume 38

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Personal Training, Coaching, and Strength & Conditioning

Building Impressive Strength After 50 By Bret Contreras

How to Guarantee You’ll Have a Hard Time Getting Clients Results By Tony Gentilcore

The Concept of Lowest System Load By Charlie Weingroff

Sudden Speed for Volleyball  By Ty Terrell via IFAST

 

Weight Loss, Nutrition, and General Health

Managing the stress of trying to get fitter: part 1 By Joy Victoria

A Really Bad Long Term Strategy for Weight Loss By Mike Roussell

Ask the Diet Doctor: Hangover Cures  By Mike Roussell via Shape

Perfecting Protein Intake in Athletes: How Much, What, and When? By Jorn Trommelen via Stronger By Science

Sleep, Hunger, Mood, Energy & Cravings (SHMEC): Is Your SHMEC in Check? By Jade Teta via Metabolic Effect

Detoxing, ReToxing, or Always-Toxing By Keoni Teta via Metabolic Effect

 

Strength Training, Powerlifting, and Bodybuilding

7 Tips For A Bigger Bench By Bret Contreras

Reverse Engineering The Plank By Charlie Weingroff

 

Motivation, Business, and Success

A case study on leveraging your assets to get shit done By Sol Orwell

Fitness Industry Survival Tips By Travis Hansen via Tony Gentilcore

15 Essentials to Creating a Trust-Boosting YouTube Profile Page By Neil Patel via QuickSprout

 

Physical Therapy, Alignment, and Injury Prevention

How to Train Around a Groin Strain By Samuel Spinelli via Tony Gentilcore

Who Gets the Best Care? Erson Religioso

Training with Biceps Tendinopathy  By Jason Eure via Stronger By Science

Research

Omega 3 Fatty Acids, Blood Flow and Cognition By Michael Jurgelewicz via Strength Sensei

Periodization Preview By Greg Nuckols

 

Ruthless Performance Coaches’ Content

[RP Exclusive] Effects of Alcohol on Performance By Daniel Goebel

[RP EXCLUSIVE] Top 5 Foods for Recovery By Jesse Rodriguez